NEW DELHI — One among India’s feistiest opposition events was main in early outcomes on Sunday from elections within the state of West Bengal, a carefully watched race held throughout a catastrophic surge of Covid-19 infections.

High events had campaigned relentlessly in West Bengal, certainly one of India’s most populous states and a stronghold of opposition to Narendra Modi, the highly effective prime minister. Even with circumstances hovering and an increasing number of individuals dying throughout India, Mr. Modi and different politicians held monumental rallies up and down the state, which critics mentioned helped to unfold the illness.

By early Sunday afternoon, Mr. Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Social gathering was trailing regardless of its heavy funding in West Bengal, a prize it desperately needed to win. The occasion appeared more likely to win extra seats within the state meeting than it did within the final election — an indication of how dominant it has change into nationwide. Nonetheless, the All India Trinamool Congress occasion, which holds energy within the state, appeared to be safely forward.

That occasion is led by Mamata Banerjee, India’s solely feminine chief minister, who has developed her personal cult of character and a reputation as a street fighter robust sufficient to chase away essentially the most withering assaults from the B.J.P., as Mr. Modi’s Hindu nationalist occasion is often recognized.

Three different states and a federal territory additionally launched early election outcomes on Sunday, they usually contained few surprises.

Kerala, within the south, appeared more likely to stay underneath the management of the Left Democratic Entrance, an alliance of centrist and left-leaning events.

Tamil Nadu, additionally within the south and residential to a few of India’s most revolutionary know-how firms, will in all probability be managed by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, a centrist alliance, as exit polls had predicted.

Assam, a northeastern area wracked by some very divisive religious and citizenship issues, will stay a stronghold of the B.J.P.

And a regional occasion aligned with the B.J.P. appeared to be firmly forward in Puducherry, a former French colony on India’s east coast that’s now a territory managed by the central authorities.

“Early tendencies point out that Modi’s private, divisive and aggressive marketing campaign in West Bengal has not yielded the outcomes he anticipated,” mentioned Gilles Verniers, a professor of political science at Ashoka College close to New Delhi. “The B.J.P. has did not make inroads within the south, which exhibits that nationalist rhetoric alone is just not enough to develop the B.J.P.’s base.”

Many Indians had been shocked that these elections had been even held. The nation is going through its biggest disaster in a long time, with a second wave of the coronavirus inflicting huge illness and dying. Hospitals are so full that persons are dying within the streets.

Cremation grounds are working day and night, burning thousands of bodies. In New Delhi, there’s an acute shortage of medical oxygen, and dozens have died gasping for breath of their hospital beds.

On Sunday, India reported round 400,000 new infections and practically 3,700 deaths, its highest every day toll but. Consultants say that could be a huge undercount and that the true toll is much increased.

Mr. Modi was scheduled to satisfy together with his well being minister on Sunday to debate the oxygen scarcity and considerations that docs and nurses are overwhelmed and exhausted. On Saturday, Indian officers introduced that the primary batch of the Russian vaccine, Sputnik V, had arrived, a lift to India’s flagging inoculation marketing campaign.

Critics have blasted Mr. Modi’s handling of the crisis. His authorities did not heed warnings from scientists, and its personal Covid-19 activity power didn’t meet for months. To sign that India was open for enterprise, Mr. Modi himself declared a untimely victory over Covid in late January, throughout what proved to be a mere lull in infections.

A lot of India dropped its guard. That, together with the emergence of more dangerous variants and the sluggish vaccine marketing campaign, is believed to have fueled the staggering variety of infections, the worst numbers the world has seen.

The West Bengal election was held in phases, starting in late March and working by final week. Many critics mentioned it ought to have been known as off, or that rallies, on the very least, ought to have been stopped.

However that didn’t occur. Mr. Modi’s occasion went on the assault, telling Hindu voters that in the event that they didn’t vote for Mr. Modi’s occasion, their most deeply held non secular beliefs is likely to be in peril.

Ms. Banerjee, 66, who has led the state for a decade, dismissed that as nonsense. Lengthy fashionable amongst Muslims and different minorities, she additionally appealed on to Hindus, portray the B.J.P. as outsiders to her state who had been intent on stirring up hassle.

Mr. Modi traveled to West Bengal a few dozen occasions for packed rallies (usually failing to put on a masks, together with many individuals within the crowds). His face was so ubiquitous that folks joked that he appeared to be working for chief minister, the highest state-level government in India’s decentralized system.

Ms. Banerjee’s marketing campaign slogan was easy and nativist: “Bengal chooses its personal daughter.”

Even with this seemingly loss, Mr. Modi’s occasion is by far the dominant political outfit in India, and there’s no different political determine who comes near his reputation.

Nonetheless, given how onerous he fought to win West Bengal, some analysts noticed Sunday’s outcomes as a blow to him, with Ms. Banerjee and different regional figures — particularly, M.Okay. Stalin in Tamil Nadu and Pinarayi Vijayan in Kerala — gaining power.

“This authorities is now battling a public backlash on their mishandling of the Covid pandemic,” mentioned Arati Jerath, a widely known political commentator. “I feel it’s dangerous information for Modi that three highly effective regional chieftains are rising from these elections.”