JERUSALEM — When a younger Israeli lady was launched from detention in Syria this week, after having been arrested for crossing illegally into Syria, the official story was that she had been the beneficiary of a straightforward prisoner swap. In return for her freedom, the Israeli authorities introduced, she had been exchanged for 2 Syrian shepherds captured by the Israelis.

But when this deal between two enemy states, which have by no means shared diplomatic relations, sounded too swift and straightforward, it was. In secret, Israel had in actual fact additionally agreed to a much more contentious ransom: the financing of an undisclosed variety of coronavirus vaccines for Syria, in line with an official conversant in the content material of the negotiations.

Underneath the deal, Israel can pay Russia, which mediated it, to ship Russian-made Sputnik V vaccines to the regime of President Bashar al-Assad of Syria, the official stated. Israel has given at least one vaccine shot to almost half its inhabitants of 9.2 million, whereas Syria — now getting into its eleventh yr of civil conflict — has but to start its vaccine rollout.

The Israeli authorities declined to touch upon the vaccine side of the deal, whereas a Syrian state-controlled information outlet, the Syrian Arab Information Company, denied that vaccines have been a part of the association. Requested in regards to the vaccines in a tv interview on Saturday night time, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel evaded the query, saying solely that no Israeli vaccines have been being despatched to Syria.

“We’ve introduced the lady, I’m glad,” Mr. Netanyahu stated. He expressed due to President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia and stated, “I gained’t add any extra.”

The deal constitutes a uncommon second of uneasy cooperation between two states which have fought a number of wars and nonetheless contest the sovereignty of a tract of land, the Golan Heights, that Israel captured from Syria in 1967.

It additionally highlights how vaccines are more and more a feature of international diplomacy. And it displays an enormous and growing disparity between rich states, like Israel, which have made appreciable headway with coronavirus vaccines and will quickly return to some sort of normality — and poor ones, like Syria, that haven’t.

Amongst Palestinians, information reviews in regards to the Israel-Syria deal have elevated frustrations in regards to the low numbers of vaccines offered by Israel to Palestinians dwelling within the occupied territories. Israel has equipped only some thousand vaccines to the roughly 2.8 million Palestinians dwelling the occupied West Financial institution, and final week the Israeli authorities briefly delayed the supply of a primary batch of vaccines to Gaza, the place practically two million individuals reside.

Israel maintains that the Oslo Accords absolve it of a accountability to offer for Palestinian well being care. However rights campaigners and Palestinians cite the fourth Geneva convention, which obliges an occupying energy to coordinate with the native authorities to keep up public well being inside an occupied territory.

Israeli officers have said they have to vaccinate their very own inhabitants earlier than turning to the Palestinians. However the Syria deal sends a unique message, stated Khaled Elgindy, a researcher and former adviser to the Palestinian management.

“Israel is prepared to offer vaccines to Syrians exterior their borders, however on the identical time not present them to an infinite occupied inhabitants that they’re legally chargeable for,” Mr. Elgindy stated. “That appears to be sending a message that they’re intentionally making an attempt to keep away from their obligation to take care of the welfare of that occupied inhabitants.”

Amongst Israelis, the prisoner swap has raised considerations about how a civilian was in a position to cross the extremely policed and tense border with Syria undetected by the Israeli authorities.

The girl, 23, crossed into Syria close to Mount Hermon on Feb. 2 with out initially being noticed by Israeli or Syrian forces, the official stated. Her identify presently can’t be revealed, by court docket order.

Israel realized that she had disappeared solely when her associates knowledgeable the police that she was lacking. She entered Syrian detention solely after a Syrian civilian who approached her realized she was Israeli and referred to as the police.

Israel then requested Russia — a Syrian ally with a powerful army presence within the nation — for assist in mediating her launch. Russia and Israel have coordinated throughout comparable episodes previously. In 2016, Russia helped mediate the return of an Israeli tank seized by Syrian forces in 1982 in Lebanon. In 2019, Moscow facilitated the return of the physique of an Israeli soldier killed throughout the identical conflict, Zachary Baumel.

The girl grew up in an ultra-Orthodox household in a settlement within the West Financial institution, and he or she was stated to have a historical past of trying to illegally enter Israel’s Arab neighbors — as soon as in Jordan, and as soon as in Gaza. Each instances, she was apprehended by Israeli forces, returned, questioned and warned not to take action once more.

Israeli negotiators sought to behave rapidly, to keep away from a replay of the disaster that adopted the disappearance in Gaza of Avera Mengistu, a person with a historical past of psychological sickness who marched into the strip in 2014 and has been held ever since by Hamas, the militant group, which incessantly raises the value for his launch.

Mr. Netanyahu spoke twice instantly with Mr. Putin, whereas the Israeli nationwide safety adviser, Meir Ben-Shabbat, communicated together with his Russian counterpart, Nikolai Patrushev.

The Syrians first demanded the discharge of two Syrian residents of the Golan Heights imprisoned in Israel, however that association broke down after it turned out that the 2 didn’t want to return to Syria.

Israel then provided the discharge of the 2 shepherds, and sooner or later in negotiations, the potential of vaccines was raised.

The Israeli cupboard voted to conform to the phrases of the deal on Tuesday, the identical day that the 23-year-old was flown to Moscow. Following additional negotiations between Israeli and Russian officers, she was returned to Israel on Thursday.

In Moscow, officers had provided no affirmation of such an association by late Saturday, and Russian information media carried solely reviews citing Israeli publications.

However the Russian authorities has for months been deftly utilizing its vaccine in diplomacy from Latin America to the Center East. As lately as Thursday Mr. Putin’s particular envoy to Syria, Alexander Lavrentiev, recommended that Russia can be supplying its Sputnik V vaccine to Syria in an interview with the Tass information company.

Patrick Kingsley reported from Jerusalem, Ronen Bergman from Tel Aviv and Andrew E. Kramer from Moscow. Hwaida Saad contributed reporting from Beirut and Carol Sutherland from Moshav Ben Ami, Israel.