WASHINGTON — A couple of days earlier than President Biden’s Summit for Democracy, a digital assembly of greater than 100 international locations that opens on Thursday, the Chinese language international ministry launched a stinging report concerning the American democratic system.

The “gunshots and farce on Capitol Hill have utterly revealed what’s beneath the attractive look of the American-style democracy,” the Chinese report said, citing the Jan. 6 riot. In a rustic the place “cash decides every thing,” the report charged, “an entrenched political paralysis” renders governing inconceivable.

A spokeswoman for the Russian international ministry struck a equally contemptuous tone in late November. “The USA claims the fitting to determine who’s worthy of being referred to as a democracy and who just isn’t,” mentioned the spokeswoman, Maria Zakharova, according to Tass, the state information company. “It definitely seems to be cynical. I’d say that it seems to be pathetic, given the state of democracy and human rights in the US and within the West normally.”

A backlash from authoritarian governments that weren’t invited to a summit assembly meant to assist democratic values is hardly shocking.

However even U.S. officers concede that American democracy is straining from political polarization, racial injustice and discord, voting rights restrictions and home extremism, amongst different points. Some activists are urging Mr. Biden to dedicate extra consideration to issues at dwelling earlier than turning his focus overseas.

“You may’t attempt to export and defend democracy globally when you may’t defend it domestically,” mentioned Cliff Albright, a co-founder and govt director of the Black Voters Matter Fund, a progressive nonprofit group in Atlanta. “You may’t be the worldwide fireman when your home is on fireplace.”

That rigidity will loom over the two-day digital gathering of leaders from mannequin democracies like Germany, Japan and Sweden to international locations with combined data equivalent to Georgia, Nigeria and Pakistan. The assembly, which may also embrace journalists, civil society activists and enterprise leaders, is supposed to be a discussion board for democracies to change concepts and critiques, U.S. officers say. Individuals may also make commitments on political reform, corruption, human rights and different issues.

“The U.S. is clearly going by means of a tough patch proper now,” mentioned Michael J. Abramowitz, the president of Freedom Home, a nonpartisan group devoted to human rights and democracy. The USA ranked fiftieth on Freedom Home’s annual index of global freedom, he mentioned. Final month, the Stockholm-based Worldwide Institute for Democracy and Electoral Help positioned the US on its listing of “backsliding democracies.”

Home shortcomings mustn’t deter the US from selling its core values the place authoritarianism and populism have gained traction in recent times, Mr. Abramowitz mentioned, “so long as it’s executed with humility.”

“With out United States engagement and management, the reason for democracy won’t advance,” he mentioned. “Who else will do it?”

Mr. Biden has mentioned the world stands at a historic “inflection level” within the contest between democracy and autocracy. He has additionally vowed to indicate that the U.S. system is superior to extra centralized fashions, like China’s, which brook little dissent. Administration officers say they meet that problem however don’t have any illusions about their home troubles.

“We strategy this week with each humility and confidence,” Uzra Zeya, the underneath secretary for civilian safety, democracy and human rights, advised reporters on the State Division on Tuesday.

She added: “Humility in that we need to pay attention and be taught and don’t shrink back from our shortcomings; confidence in our fixed striving for a extra good union; and our certainty that, working collectively, democracies can and can ship for the world’s residents, whatever the uncooked deal that autocrats and authoritarians attempt to promote.”

However others cautioned towards transferring the highlight abroad whereas issues festered at dwelling. The federal authorities have mentioned that violent home extremists proceed to be emboldened by false claims concerning the 2020 election. Former President Donald J. Trump is fighting in court to block the release of documents requested by a congressional committee investigating the mob assault on the Capitol. And Republicans have handed voting restrictions in 19 states this yr.

Whereas Mr. Biden has referred to as defending the fitting to vote an pressing precedence, lots of his supporters complain that federal laws to bolster voting rights, standardize primary election guidelines and outlaw gerrymandering has not superior in Congress.

A White Home reality sheet issued earlier than the summit cited the passage of his bipartisan infrastructure plan as a outstanding instance of a functioning democracy. However Marc H. Morial, the president and chief govt of the Nationwide City League, mentioned that extra motion was wanted on home threats to democracy. He referred to as the summit “a missed alternative.”

“You can not separate what’s occurring globally with what’s occurring in the US,” Mr. Morial mentioned.

The Biden administration may additionally use the summit to set out longer-term plans to work with different international locations dealing with related threats to democracy, mentioned Rachel Kleinfeld, a senior fellow within the Carnegie Endowment for Worldwide Peace, a Washington suppose tank. For instance, officers may strategize on methods to crack down on U.S. extremist teams more and more making connections abroad, she mentioned.

“American democracy at dwelling and international democracy overseas are in dire want of technique, of enchancment, as a result of each are dealing with swift recession,” Ms. Kleinfeld mentioned. “However a summit just isn’t a technique. Actually, a summit has been a distraction.”

Home points aren’t the one potential supply of awkwardness on the assembly, which is ready to function remarks from Mr. Biden, classes with heads of state and greater than a dozen occasions.

The administration has additionally confronted questions over its standards for invites. Critics have questioned the inclusion of nations just like the Philippines, which the State Division has condemned for extrajudicial killings, and Pakistan, which the US accused of “pressured disappearance by the federal government or its brokers; torture; and instances of merciless, inhuman or degrading remedy or punishment by the federal government.”

Freedom Home discovered that Georgia was affected by the affect of oligarchs over its politics and information media, and that Nigeria, Africa’s largest democracy, had endemic corruption and permitted the harassment and arrests of journalists.

“I’d not have thrown a celebration in fairly this manner,” Ms. Kleinfeld mentioned of the “broad tent” of invitees.

Hungary and Turkey, that are NATO members, weren’t invited; nor have been a number of different international locations that determine as democracies however have data of repression. Singapore was additionally overlooked, although Protection Secretary Lloyd J. Austin III and Vice President Kamala Harris each traveled there this yr to advertise its relationship with the US as an ally within the South China Sea.

“The choice to not invite sturdy democracies like Singapore and Bhutan underscores that democracy is within the eye of the beholder,” mentioned Curtis S. Chin, the previous U.S. ambassador to the Asian Improvement Financial institution from 2007 to 2010.

Brazil, Latin America’s largest — however more and more authoritarian — democracy, additionally was not invited; nor have been Egypt Saudi Arabia or the United Arab Emirates.

Jen Psaki, the White Home press secretary, mentioned this week that the invites shouldn’t be handled as a “stamp of approval on their strategy to democracy.”

“This is a chance, once more, to not have fun every thing we’ve executed on democracy, both for the US or all these international locations, and name it a day,” she mentioned. “It’s a possibility to proceed to try to do higher.”

Michael Wines contributed reporting.